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SHRED(1) User Commands SHRED(1)
shred - overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it
shred [OPTIONS] FILE [...]
Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly, in order to make it harder
for even very expensive hardware probing to recover the data.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
change permissions to allow writing if necessary
Overwrite N times instead of the default (25)
shred this many bytes (suffixes like K, M, G accepted)
truncate and remove file after overwriting
do not round file sizes up to the next full block;
this is the default for non-regular files
add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding
--help display this help and exit
output version information and exit
If FILE is -, shred standard output.
Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified. The default is not to
remove the files because it is common to operate on device files like
/dev/hda, and those files usually should not be removed. When operat-
ing on regular files, most people use the --remove option.
CAUTION: Note that shred relies on a very important assumption: that
the file system overwrites data in place. This is the traditional way
to do things, but many modern file system designs do not satisfy this
assumption. The following are examples of file systems on which shred
is not effective, or is not guaranteed to be effective in all file sys-
* log-structured or journaled file systems, such as those supplied with
AIX and Solaris (and JFS, ReiserFS, XFS, Ext3, etc.)
* file systems that write redundant data and carry on even if some
fail, such as RAID-based file systems
* file systems that make snapshots, such as Network Appliance's NFS
* file systems that cache in temporary locations, such as NFS
version 3 clients
* compressed file systems
In the case of ext3 file systems, the above disclaimer applies (and
shred is thus of limited effectiveness) only in data=journal mode,
which journals file data in addition to just metadata. In both the
data=ordered (default) and data=writeback modes, shred works as usual.
Ext3 journaling modes can be changed by adding the data=something
option to the mount options for a particular file system in the
/etc/fstab file, as documented in the mount man page (man mount).
In addition, file system backups and remote mirrors may contain copies
of the file that cannot be removed, and that will allow a shredded file
to be recovered later.
Written by Colin Plumb.
Report bugs to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the
extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for shred is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and shred programs are properly installed at your site, the
should give you access to the complete manual.
shred 5.97 March 2012 SHRED(1)
© 1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <email@example.com>