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groff_mm - groff mm macros
groff -mm [ options... ] [ files... ]
The groff mm macros are intended to be compatible with the DWB mm
macros with the following limitations:
? no Bell Labs localisms implemented.
? the macros OK and PM are not implemented.
? groff mm does not support cut marks
mm is intended to be international. Therefore it is possible to write
short national macrofiles which change all english text to the pre-
ferred language. Use mmse as an example.
A file called locale or lang_locale is read after the initiation of the
global variables. It is therefore possible to localize the macros with
companyname and so on.
In this manual square brackets is used to show optional arguments.
Number registers and strings
Many macros can be controlled by number registers and strings. A num-
ber register is assigned with the nr command:
.nr XXX [+-]n [i]
XXX is the name of the register, n is the value to be assigned, and i
is increment value for auto-increment. n can have a plus or minus sign
as prefix if an increment or decrement of the current value is wanted.
(Auto-increment or decrement occurs if the number register is used with
a plus or minus sign, \n+[XXX] or \n-[XXX].)
Strings is defined with ds.
.ds YYY string
The string is assigned everything to the end of the line, even blanks.
Initial blanks in string should be prefixed with a double-quote.
(Strings are used in the text as \*[YYY].)
Special formatting of number registers
A number register is printed with normal digits if no format has been
given. Set the format with af:
.af R c
R is the name of the register, c is the format.
1 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
001 000, 001, 002, 003, ...
i 0, i, ii, iii, iv, ...
I 0, I, II, III, IV, ...
a 0, a, b, c, ..., z, aa, ab, ...
A 0, A, B, C, ..., Z, AA, AB, ...
)E level text
Adds text (heading-text) to the table of contents with level
either 0 or between 1-7. See also .H. This macro is used for
customized table of contents.
1C  Begin one column processing. An 1 as argument disables the
page-break. Use wide footnotes, small footnotes may be over-
2C Begin two column processing. Splits the page in two columns.
It is a special case of MC. See also 1C.
AE Abstract end, see AS.
AF [name of firm]
Authors firm, should be called before AU, see also COVER.
AL [type [text-indent ]]
Start autoincrement list. Items are numbered beginning on one.
The type argument controls the type of numbers.
1 Arabic (the default)
A Upper-case letters (A-Z)
a Lower-case letters (a-z)
I Upper-case roman
i Lower-case roman
Text-indent sets the indent and overrides Li. A third argument
will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.
APP name text
Begin an appendix with name name. Automatic naming occurs if
name is "". The appendixes starts with A if auto is used. An
new page is ejected, and a header is also produced if the number
variable Aph is non-zero. This is the default. The appendix
always appear in the 'List of contents' with correct pagenumber.
The name APPENDIX can be changed by setting the string App to
the desired text. The string Apptxt contains the current
APPSK name pages text
Same as .APP, but the pagenr is incremented with pages. This is
used when diagrams or other non-formatted documents are included
AS [arg [indent]]
Abstract start. Indent is specified in 'ens', but scaling is
allowed. Argument arg controls where the abstract is printed.
0 Abstract will be printed on page 1 and on the cover sheet
if used in the released-paper style (MT 4), otherwise it
will be printed on page 1 without a cover sheet.
1 Abstract will only be printed on the cover sheet (MT 4
2 Abstract will be printed only on the cover sheet (other
than MT 4 only). The cover sheet is printed without need
Abstract is not printed at all in external letters (MT 5). The
indent controls the indentation of both margins, otherwise will
normal text indent be used.
Abstract title. Default is ABSTRACT. Sets the text above the
AT title1 [title2 ...]
Authors title. AT must appear just after each AU. The title
will show up after the name in the signature block.
AU [name [initials [loc [dept [ext [room [arg [arg [arg]]]]]]]]]
Author information, specifies the author of the memo or paper,
and will be printed on the cover sheet and on other similar
places. AU must not appear before TL. The author information
can contain initials, location, department, telephone extension,
room number or name and up to three extra arguments.
AV [name ]
Approval signature, generates an approval line with place for
signature and date. The string APPROVED: can be changed with
variable Letapp, and the string Date in Letdate.
Letter signature, generates a line with place for signature.
B [bold-text [prev-font-text [bold...]]]
Begin boldface. No limit on the number of arguments. All argu-
ments will be concatenated to one word, the first, third and so
on will be printed in boldface.
B1 Begin box (as the ms macro). Draws a box around the text. The
text will be indented one character, and the right margin will
be one character shorter.
B2 End box. Finish the box started by B1.
BE End bottom block, see BS.
BI [bold-text [italic-text [bold-text [...]]]]
Bold-italic. No limit on the number of arguments, see B.
BL [text-indent ]
Start bullet list, initialize a list with a bullet and a space
in the beginning of each list item (see LI). Text-indent over-
rides the default indentation of the list items set by number
register Pi. A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank
line before each item.
BR [bold-text [roman-text [bold-text [...]]]]
Bold-roman. No limit on the number of arguments.
BS Bottom block start. Begins the definition of a text block which
is printed at the bottom of each page. Block ends with BE.
BVL text-indent [mark-indent ]
Start of broken variable-item list. Broken variable-item list
has no fixed mark, it assumes that every LI has a mark instead.
The text will always begin at the next line after the mark.
Text-indent sets the indent to the text, and mark-indent the
distance from the current indent to the mark. A third argument
will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.
COVER begins a coversheet definition. It is important that
.COVER appears before any normal text. .COVER uses arg to build
the filename /usr/share/groff/184.108.40.206/tmac/mm/arg.cov. There-
fore it is possible to create unlimited types of coversheets.
ms.cov is supposed to look like the ms coversheet. .COVER
requires a .COVEND at the end of the coverdefinition. Always
use this order of the covermacros:
However, only .TL and .AU are required.
COVEND This finish the cover description and prints the cover-page. It
is defined in the cover file.
DE Display end. Ends a block of text, display, that begins with DS
DF [format [fill [rindent]]]
Begin floating display (no nesting allowed). A floating display
is saved in a queue and is printed in the order entered. For-
mat, fill and rindent is the same as in DS. Floating displays
are controlled by the two number registers De and Df.
0 Nothing special, this is the default.
1 A page eject will occur after each printed display, giving
only one display per page and no text following it.
0 Displays are printed at the end of each section (when sec-
tion-page numbering is active) or at the end of the docu-
1 A new display will be printed on the current page if there
is enough space, otherwise it will be printed at the end of
2 One display will be printed at the top of each page or col-
umn (in multi-column mode).
3 Print one display if there is enough space for it, other-
wise it will be printed at the top of the next page or col-
4 Print as many displays that will fit in a new page or col-
umn. A page break will occur between each display if De is
5 Fill the current page with displays and the rest beginning
at a new page or column. (This is the default.) A page
break will occur between each display if De is not zero.
DL [text-indent [1 ]]
Dash list start. Begins a list where each item is printed after
a dash. Text-indent changes the default indentation of the list
items set by number register Pi. A second argument prevents the
empty line between each list item to be printed. See LI. A
third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before
DS [format [fill [rindent]]]
Static display start. Begins collection of text until DE. The
text is printed together on the same page, unless it is longer
than the height of the page. DS can be nested to a unlimited
depth (reasonably :-).
"" No indentation.
none No indentation.
L No indentation.
I Indent text with the value of number register Si.
C Center each line
CB Center the whole display as a block.
R Right adjust the lines.
RB Right adjust the whole display as a block
L, I, C and CB can also be specified as 0, 1, 2 or 3 for compat-
ibility reasons. (Don't use it. :-)
"" Line-filling turned off.
none Line-filling turned off.
N Line-filling turned off.
F Line-filling turned on.
N and F can also be specified as 0 or 1. An empty line will
normally be printed before and after the display. Setting
number register Ds to 0 will prevent this. Rindent shortens the
line length by that amount.
EC [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
Equation title. Sets a title for an equation. The override
argument change the numbering.
none override is a prefix to the number.
0 override is a prefix to the number.
1 override is a suffix to the number.
2 override replaces the number.
EC uses the number register Ec as counter. It is possible to
use .af to change the format of the number. If number register
Of is 1, then the format of title will use a dash instead of a
dot after the number.
The string Le controls the title of the List of Equations,
default is LIST OF EQUATIONS. The List of Equations will only
be printed if number register Le is 1, default 0. The string
Liec contains the word Equation, wich is printed before the num-
ber. If refname is used, then the equation number is saved with
.SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
Special handling of the title will occur if EC is used inside
DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
Even-page footer, printed just above the normal page footer on
even pages, see PF.
Even-page header, printed just below the normal page header on
even pages, see PH.
EN Equation end, see EQ.
EOP End of page user-defined macro. This macro will be called
instead of the normal printing of the footer. The macro will be
executed in a separate environment, without any trap active.
Strings available to EOP
EOPf Argument from PF.
EOPefArgument from EF.
EOPofArgument from OF.
EPIC [-L] width height [name]
EPIC draws a box with the given width and height, it will also
print the text name or a default string if name is not speci-
fied.. This is used to include external pictures, just give the
size of the picture. -L will leftadjust the picture, the
default is to center adjust. See PIC
Equation start. EQ/EN are the delimiters for equations written
for eqn. EQ/EN must be inside a DS/DE-pair, except when EQ is
only used to set options in eqn. The label will appear at the
right margin of the equation, unless number register Eq is 1.
Then the label will appear at the left margin.
EX [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
Exhibit title, arguments are the same as for EC. EX uses the
number register Ex as counter. The string Lx controls the title
of the List of Exhibits, default is LIST OF EXHIBITS. The List
of Exhibits will only be printed if number register Lx is 1,
default 1. The string Liex contains the word Exhibit, which is
printed before the number. If refname is used, then the exhibit
number is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST
Special handling of the title will occur if EX is used inside
DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
Prints Yours very truly, as a formal closing of a letter or mem-
orandum. The argument replaces the defualt string. The default
is stored in string variable Letfc.
FD [arg ]
Footnote default format. Controls the hyphenation (hyphen),
right margin justification (adjust), indentation of footnote
text (indent). It can also change the label justification
arg hyphen adjust indent ljust
0 no yes yes left
1 yes yes yes left
2 no no yes left
3 yes no yes left
4 no yes no left
5 yes yes no left
6 no no no left
7 yes no no left
8 no yes yes right
9 yes yes yes right
10 no no yes right
11 yes no yes right
Argument greater than or equal to 11 is considered as arg 0.
Default for mm is 10.
FE Footnote end.
FG [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
Figure title, arguments are the same as for EC. FG uses the
number register Fg as counter. The string Lf controls the title
of the List of Figures, default is LIST OF FIGURES. The List of
Figures will only be printed if number register Lf is 1, default
1. The string Lifg contains the word Figure, wich is printed
before the number. If refname is used, then the figure number
is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
Special handling of the title will occur if FG is used inside
DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
Footnote start. The footnote is ended by FE. Footnotes is nor-
mally automatically numbered, the number is available in string
F. Just add \*F in the text. By adding label, it is possible
to have other number or names on the footnotes. Footnotes in
displays is now possible. An empty line separates footnotes,
the height of the line is controlled by number register Fs,
default value is 1.
GETHN refname [varname]
Includes the headernumber where the corresponding SETR refname
was placed. Will be X.X.X. in pass 1. See INITR. If varname
is used, GETHN sets the stringvariable varname to the headernum-
GETPN refname [varname]
Includes the pagenumber where the corresponding SETR refname was
placed. Will be 9999 in pass 1. See INITR. If varname is
used, GETPN sets the stringvariable varname to the pagenumber.
Combines GETHN and GETPN with the text 'chapter' and ', page'.
The string Qrf contains the text for reference:
.ds Qrf See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\*[Qrfp].
Qrf may be changed to support other languages. Strings Qrfh and
Qrfp are set by GETR and contains the page and headernumber.
GETST refname [varname]
Includes the string saved with the second argument to .SETR.
Will be dummystring in pass 1. If varname is used, GETST sets
the stringvariable varname to the saved string. See INITR.
H level [heading-text [heading-suffix]]
Numbered section heading. Section headers can have a level
between 1 and 7, level 1 is the top level. The text is given in
heading-text, and must be surrounded by double quotes if it con-
tains spaces. Heading-suffix is added to the header in the text
but not in the table of contents. This is normally used for
footnote marks and similar things. Don't use \*F in heading-
suffix, it won't work. A manual label must be used, see FS.
An eventual paragraph, P, directly after H will be ignored, H is
taking care of spacing and indentation.
Page ejection before heading
Number register Ej controls page ejection before the heading.
Normally, a level one heading gets two blank lines before it,
higher levels gets only one. A new page is ejected before each
first-level heading if number register Ej is 1. All levels
below or equal the value of Ej gets a new page. Default value
for Ej is 0.
Heading break level
A line break occurs after the heading if the heading level is
less or equal to number register Hb. Default value 2.
Heading space level
A blank line is inserted after the heading if the heading level
is less or equal to number register Hs. Default value 2.
Text will follow the heading on the same line if the level is
greater than both Hb and Hs.
Indentation of the text after the heading is controlled by num-
ber register Hi, default value 0.
0 The text will be left-justified.
1 Indentation of the text will follow the value of number
register Pt, see P.
2 The text will be lined up with the first word of the head-
Centered section headings
All headings whose level is equal or below number register Hc
and also less than or equal to Hb or Hs is centerered.
Font control of the heading
The font of each heading level is controlled by string HF. It
contains a fontnumber or fontname for each level. Default is
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (all headings in italic). Could also be written
as I I I I I I I. Note that some other implementations use
3 3 2 2 2 2 2 as the default value. All omitted values are pre-
sumed to be a 1.
Point size control.
String HP controls the pointsize of each heading, in the same
way as HF controls the font. A value of 0 selects the default
point size. Default value is 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Beware that only
the point size changes, not the vertical size. That can be con-
trolled by the user specified macro HX and/or HZ.
Seven number registers, named H1 thru H7 contains the counter
for each heading level. The values are printed using arabic
numerals, this can be changed with the macro HM (see below).
All marks are concatenated before printing. To avoid this, set
number register Ht to 1. That will only print the current head-
ing counter at each heading.
Automatic table of contents
All headings whose level is equal or below number register Cl is
saved to be printed in the table of contents. Default value
Special control of the heading, user-defined macros.
These macros can be defined by the user to get a finer control
of vertical spacing, fonts or other features. Argument level is
the level-argument to H, but 0 for unnumbered headings (see HU).
Argument rlevel is the real level, it is set to number register
Hu for unnumbered headings. Argument heading-text is the text
argument to H and HU.
HX level rlevel heading-text
HX is called just before the printing of the heading. The fol-
lowing register is available for HX. HX may alter }0, }2 and
Contains the heading mark plus two spaces if rlevel is non-
zero, otherwise empty.
Contains the position of the text after the heading. 0
means that the text should follow the heading on the same
line, 1 means that a line break should occur before the
text and 2 means that a blank line should separate the
heading and the text.
Contains two spaces if register ;0 is 0. It is used to
separate the heading from the text. The string is empty if
;0 is non-zero.
Contains the needed space in units after the heading.
Default is 2v.
Can be used to change things like numbering (}0), vertical
spacing (}2) and the needed space after the heading.
HY dlevel rlevel heading-text
HY is called after size and font calculations and might be used
to change indentation.
HZ dlevel rlevel heading-text
HZ is called after the printing of the heading, just before H or
HU exits. Could be used to change the page header according to
the section heading.
Set hyphenation character. Default value is \%. Resets to the
default if called without argument. Hyphenation can be turned
off by setting number register Hy to 0 in the beginning of the
HM [arg1 [arg2 [... [arg7]]]]
Heading mark style. Controls the type of marking for printing
of the heading counters. Default is 1 for all levels.
1 Arabic numerals.
0001 Arabic numerals with leading zeroes, one or more.
A Upper-case alphabetic
a Lower-case alphabetic
I Upper-case roman numerals
lower-case roman numerals
Unnumbered section header. HU behavies like H at the level in
number register Hu. See H.
HX dlevel rlevel heading-text
Userdefined heading exit. Called just before printing the
header. See H.
HY dlevel rlevel heading-text
Userdefined heading exit. Called just before printing the
header. See H.
HZ dlevel rlevel heading-text
Userdefined heading exit. Called just after printing the
header. See H.
I [italic-text [prev-font-text [italic-text [...]]]]
Italic. Changes the font to italic if called without arguments.
With one argument it will set the word in italic. With two
argument it will concatenate them and set the first word in
italic and the second in the previous font. There is no limit
on the number of argument, all will be concatenated.
IA [addressee-name [title]]
Begins specification of the addressee and addressee's address in
letter style. Several names can be specified with empty IA/IE-
pairs, but only one address. See LT.
IB [italic-text [bold-text [italic-text [...]]]]
Italic-bold. Even arguments is printed in italic, odd in bold-
face. See I.
IE Ends the address-specification after IA.
INITI type filename [macro]
Initialize the new index system, sets the filename to collect
index lines in with IND. Argument type selects the type of
index, page number, header marks or both. The default is N.
It is also possible to create a macro that is responsible for
formatting each row. Add the name of the macro as argument 3.
The macro will be called with the index as argument(s).
N Page numbers
H Header marks
B Both page numbers and header marks, tab separated
Initialize the refencemacros. References will be written to
stderr and is supposed to be written to filename.qrf. Requires
two passes with groff, this is handled by a separate program
called mmroff, the reason is that groff is often installed with-
out the unsafe operations that INITR requiered. The first pass
looks for references and the second one includes them. INITR
can be used several times, but it is only the first occurrence
of INITR that is active.
See also SETR, GETPN and GETHN.
IND arg1 [arg2 [...]]
IND writes a line in the index file selected by INITI with all
arguments and the page number or header mark separated by tabs.
arg1\tpage number\theader mark
INDP INDP prints the index by running the command specified by string
variable Indcmd, normally sort -t\t. INDP reads the output from
the command to form the index, normally in two columns (can be
changed by defining TYIND). The index is printed with string
variable Index as header, default is INDEX. One-column process-
ing is returned after the list. INDP will call the user-defined
macros TXIND, TYIND and TZIND if defined. TXIND is called
before printing INDEX, TYIND is called instead of printing
INDEX. TZIND is called after the printing and should take care
of restoring to normal operation again.
ISODATE changes the predefined date string in DT to ISO-format,
ie YYYY-MM-DD. This can also be done by adding -rIso=1 on the
command line. Reverts to old date format if argument is 0.
IR [italic-text [roman-text [italic-text [...]]]]
Italic-roman. Even arguments is printed in italic, odd in
roman. See I.
LB text-indent mark-indent pad type [mark [LI-space [LB-space]]]
List begin macro. This is the common macro used for all lists.
Text-indent is the number of spaces to indent the text from the
Pad and mark-indent controls where to put the mark. The mark is
placed within the mark area, and mark-indent sets the number of
spaces before this area. It is normally 0. The mark area ends
where the text begins. The start of the text is still con-
trolled by text-indent.
The mark is left justified whitin the mark area if pad is 0. If
pad is greater than 0, then mark-indent is ignored, and the mark
is placed pad spaces before the text. This will right justify
If type is 0 the list will have either a hanging indent or, if
argument mark is given, the string mark as mark.
If type is greater than 0 automatic numbering will occur, arabic
if mark is empty. Mark can then be any of 1, A, a, I or i.
Type selects one of six possible ways to display the mark.
Every item in the list will get LI-space number of blank lines
before them. Default is 1.
LB itself will print LB-space blank lines. Default is 0.
List-status clear. Terminates all current active lists down to
list-level, or 0 if no argmuent is given. This is used by H to
clear any active list.
LE  List end. Terminate the current list. LE outputs a blank line
if an argument is given.
LI [mark ]
List item precedes every item in a list. Without argument LI
will print the mark determined by the current list type. By
giving LI one argument, it will use that as the mark instead.
Two arguments to LI will make mark a prefix to the current mark.
There will be no separating space between the prefix and the
mark if the second argument is 2 instead of 1. This behaviour
can also be achieved by setting number register Limsp to zero.
A zero length mark will make a hanging indent instead.
A blank line is normally printed before the list item. This
behaviour can be controlled by number register Ls. Pre-spacing
will occur for each list-level less than or equal to Ls.
Default value is 99. (Nesting of lists is unlimited. :-)
The indentation can be changed thru number register Li. Default
All lists begins with a list initialization macro, LB. There
are, however, seven predefined listtypes to make lists easier to
use. They all call LB with different default values.
AL Automatically Incremented List
ML Marked List
VL Variable-Item List
BL Bullet List
DL Dash List
RL Reference List
BVL Broken Varable List.
These lists are described at other places in this manual. See
Formats a letter in one of four different styles depending on
the argument. See also INTERNALS.
BL Blocked. Date line, return address, writer's address and
closing begins at the center of the line. All other lines
begin at the left margin.
SB Semi-blocked. Same as blocked, except that the first line
in every paragraph is indented five spaces.
FB Full-blocked. All lines begin at the left margin.
SP Simplified. Almost the same as the full-blocked style.
Subject and the writer's identification are printed in all-
LO type [arg]
Specify options in letter (see .LT). This is a list of the
CN Confidential notation. Prints CONFIDENTIAL on the second
line below the date line. Any argument replaces CONFIDEN-
TIAL. See also string variable LetCN.
RN Reference notation. Prints In reference to: and the argu-
ment two lines below the date line. See also string vari-
AT Attention. Prints ATTENTION: and the argument below the
inside address. See also string variable LetAT.
SA Salutation. Prints To Whom It May Concern: or the argument
if it was present. The salutation is printed two lines
below the inside address. See also string variable LetSA.
SJ Subject line. Prints the argument as subject prefixed with
SUBJECT: two lines below the inside address, except in let-
ter type SP. Then the subject is printed in all-captial
without any prefix. See also string variable LetSJ.
MC column-size [column-separation]
Begin multiple columns. Return to normal with 1C. MC will cre-
ate as many columns as the current line length permits. Column-
size is the width of each column, and column-separation is the
space between two columns. Default separation is the column-
size/15. See also 1C.
ML mark [text-indent ]
Marked list start. The mark argument will be printed before
each list item. Text-indent sets the indent and overrides Li.
A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before
MT [arg [addressee]]
Memorandum type. The arg is part of a filename in
/usr/share/groff/220.127.116.11/tmac/mm/*.MT. Memorandum type 0 thru
5 are supported, including "string". Addressee just sets a
variable, used in the AT&T macros.
0 Normal memorandum, no type printed
1 Memorandum with MEMORANDUM FOR FILE printed
2 Memorandum with PROGRAMMER'S NOTES printed
3 Memorandum with ENGINEER'S NOTES printed
4 Released paper style
5 External letter style
See also COVER/COVEND, a more flexible type of front page.
MOVE y-pos [x-pos [line-length]]
Move to a position, pageoffset set to x-pos. If line-length is
not given, the difference between current and new pageoffset is
used. Use PGFORM without arguments to return to normal.
MULB cw1 space1 [cw2 space2 [cw3 ...]]
Begin a special multi-column mode. Every columns width must be
specified. Also the space between the columns must be speci-
fied. The last column does not need any space-definition. MULB
starts a diversion and MULE ends the diversion and prints the
columns. The unit for width and space is 'n', but MULB accepts
all normal unitspecifications like 'c' and 'i'. MULB operates
in a separate environment.
MULN Begin the next column. This is the only way to switch column.
MULE End the multi-column mode and print the columns.
Print numbered paragraph with header level two. See .P.
NCOL Force printing to the next column, don't use this together with
the MUL* macros, see 2C.
NS [arg ]
Prints different types of notations. The argument selects
between the predefined type of notations. If the second argu-
ment is available, then the argument becomes the entire nota-
tion. If the argument doesn't exist in the predefined, it will
be printed as Copy (arg) to. It is possible to add more stan-
dard notations, see the string variable Letns and Letnsdef.
none Copy To
"" Copy To
1 Copy To (with att.) to
2 Copy To (without att.) to
7 Under separate cover
8 Letter to
9 Memorandum to
10 Copy (with atts.) to
11 Copy (without atts.) to
12 Abstract Only to
13 Complete Memorandum to
New date. Override the current date. Date is not printed if
new-date is an empty string.
Odd-page footer, a line printed just above the normal footer.
See EF and PF.
Odd-page header, a line printed just below the normal header.
See EH and PH.
OP Make sure that the following text is printed at the top of an
odd-numbered page. Will not output an empty page if currently
at the top of an odd page.
Begin new paragraph. P without argument will produce left jus-
tified text, even the first line of the paragraph. This is the
same as setting type to 0. If the argument is 1, then the first
line of text following P will be indented by the number of
spaces in number register Pi, normally 5.
Instead of giving 1 as argument to P it is possible to set the
paragraph type in number register Pt. Using 0 and 1 will be the
same as adding that value to P. A value of 2 will indent all
paragraphs, except after headings, lists and displays.
The space between two paragraphs is controlled by number regis-
ter Ps, and is 1 by default (one blank line).
PGFORM [linelength [pagelength [pageoffset ]]]
Sets linelength, pagelength and/or pageoffset. This macro can
be used for special formatting, like letterheads and other. It
is normally the first command in a file, though it's not neces-
sary. PGFORM can be used without arguments to reset everything
after a MOVE. A line-break is done unless the fourth argument
is given. This can be used to avoid the pagenumber on the first
page while setting new width and length. (It seems as if this
macro sometimes doesn't work too well. Use the command line
arguments to change linelength, pagelength and pageoffset
PGNH No header is printed on the next page. Used to get rid of the
header in letters or other special texts. This macro must be
used before any text to inhibit the pageheader on the first
PIC [-L] [-C] [-R] [-I n] filename [width [height]]
PIC includes a Postscript file in the document. The macro
depends on mmroff and INITR. -L, -C, -R and -I n adjusts the
picture or indents it. The optionally width and height can also
be given to resize the picture.
PE Picture end. Ends a picture for pic, see the manual for pic.
Page footer. PF sets the line to be printed at the bottom of
each page. Normally empty. See PH for the argument specifica-
Page header, a line printed at the top of each page. The argu-
ment should be specified as "'left-part'center-part'right-
part'", where left-, center- and right-part is printed left-jus-
tified, centered and right justified. The character % is
changed to the current page number. The default page-header is
"''- % -''", the page number between two dashes.
PS Picture start (from pic). Begins a picture for pic, see the
PX Page-header user-defined exit. PX is called just after the
printing of the page header in no-space mode.
R Roman. Return to roman font, see also I.
RB [roman-text [bold-text [roman-text [...]]]]
Roman-bold. Even arguments is printed in roman, odd in bold-
face. See I.
RD [prompt [diversion [string]]]
Read from standard input to diversion and/or string. The text
will be saved in a diversion named diversion. Recall the text
by writing the name of the diversion after a dot on an empty
line. A string will also be defined if string is given. Diver-
sion and/or prompt can be empty ("").
RF Reference end. Ends a reference definition and returns to nor-
mal processing. See RS.
RI [roman-text [italic-text [roman-text [...]]]]
Even arguments are printed in roman, odd in italic. See I.
RL [text-indent ]
Reference list start. Begins a list where each item is preceded
with a automatically incremented number between square brackets.
Text-indent changes the default indentation.
RP [arg1 [arg2]]
Produce reference page. RP can be used if a reference page is
wanted somewhere in the document. It is not needed if TC is
used to produce a table of content. The reference page will
then be printed automatically.
The reference counter will not be reset if arg1 is 1.
Arg2 tells RP whether to eject a page or not.
0 The reference page will be printed on a separate page.
This is the default.
1 Do not eject page after the list.
2 Do not eject page before the list.
3 Do not eject page before and after the list.
The reference items will be separated by a blank line. Setting
number register Ls to 0 will suppress the line.
The string Rp contains the reference page title and is normally
set to REFERENCES.
RS begins an automatically numbered reference definition. Put
the string \*(Rf where the reference mark should be and write
the reference between RS/RF at next new line after the reference
mark. The reference number is stored in number register :R. If
string-name is given, a string with that name will be defined
and contain the current reference mark. The string can be ref-
erenced as \*[string-name] later in the text.
S [size [spacing]]
Set point size and vertical spacing. If any argument is equal
'P', then the previous value is used. A 'C' means current
value, and 'D' default value. If '+' or '-' is used before the
value, then increment or decrement of the current value will be
Set right-margin justification. Justification is normally
turned on. No argumenent or 0 turns off justification, a 1
turns on justification.
SETR refname [string]
Remember the current header and page-number as refname. Saves
string if string is defined. string is retrieved with .GETST.
SG [arg ]
Signature line. Prints the authors name(s) after the formal
closing. The argument will be appended to the reference data,
printed at either the first or last author. The reference data
is the location, department and initials specified with .AU. It
will be printed at the first author if the second argument is
given, otherwise at the last. No reference data will be printed
if the author(s) is specifed thru .WA/.WE. See INTERNALS.
Skip pages. If pages is 0 or omitted, a skip to the next page
will occur unless it is already at the top of a page. Otherwise
it will skip pages pages.
SM string1 [string2 [string3]]
Make a string smaller. If string2 is given, string1 will be
smaller and string2 normal, concatenated with string1. With
three argument, all is concatenated, but only string2 is made
Space vertically. lines can have any scalingfactor, like 3i or
8v. Several SP in a line will only produce the maximum number
of lines, not the sum. SP will also be ignored until the first
textline in a page. Add a \& before SP to avoid this.
TAB reset tabs to every 5n. Normally used to reset any previous
TB [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
Table title, arguments are the same as for EC. TB uses the num-
ber register Tb as counter. The string Lt controls the title of
the List of Tables, default is LIST OF TABLES. The List of
Tables will only be printed if number register Lt is 1, default
1. The string Litb contains the word TABLE, wich is printed
before the number.
Special handling of the title will occur if TB is used inside
DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
TC [slevel [spacing [tlevel [tab [h1 [h2 [h3 [h4 [h5]]]]]]]]]
Table of contents. This macro is normally used at the last line
of the document. It generates a table of contents with headings
up to the level controlled by number register Cl. Note that Cl
controls the saving of headings, it has nothing to do with TC.
Headings with level less than or equal to slevel will get spac-
ing number of lines before them. Headings with level less than
or equal to tlevel will have their page numbers right justified
with dots or spaces separating the text and the page number.
Spaces is used if tab is greater than zero, otherwise dots.
Other headings will have the page number directly at the end of
the heading text (ragged right).
The rest of the arguments will be printed, centered, before the
table of contents.
The user-defined macros TX and TY are used if TC is called with
at most four arguments. TX is called before the printing of
CONTENTS, and TY is called instead of printing CONTENTS.
Equivalent macros can be defined for list of figures, tables,
equations and excibits by defining TXxx or TYxx, where xx is Fg,
TB, EC or EX.
String Ci can be set to control the indentations for each head-
ing-level. It must be scaled, like .ds Ci .25i .5i .75i 1i 1i.
The indentation is normally controlled by the maxlength of head-
ings in each level.
All texts can be redefined, new stringvariables Lifg, Litb,
Liex, Liec and Licon contain "Figure", "TABLE", "Exhibit",
"Equation" and "CONTENTS". These can be redefined to other lan-
TE Table end. See TS.
TH [N] Table header. See TS. TH ends the header of the table. This
header will be printed again if a page-break occurs. Argument N
isn't implemented yet.
TL [charging-case number(s) [filing-case number(s)]]
Begin title of memorandum. All text up to the next AU is
included in the title. Charging-case number and filing-case are
saved for use in the front page processing.
TM [num1 [num2 [...]]]
Technical memorandumnumbers used in .MT. Unlimited number of
arguments may be given.
TP Top of page user-defined macro. This macro is called instead of
the normal page header. It is possible to get complete control
over the header. Note that header and footer is printed in a
separate environment. Linelength is preserved though.
TS [H] Table start. This is the start of a table specification to tbl.
See separate manual for tbl. TS ends with TE. Argument H tells
mm that the table has a header. See TH.
TX Userdefined table of contents exit. This macro is called just
before TC prints the word CONTENTS. See TC.
TY Userdefined table of contents exit (no "CONTENTS"). This macro
is called instead of printing CONTENTS. See TC.
VERBON [flag [pointsize [font]]]
Begin verbatim output using courier font. Usually for printing
programs. All character has equal width. The pointsize can be
changed with the second argument. By specifying the font-argu-
ment it is possible to use another font instead of courier.
flag controls several special features. It contains the sum of
all wanted features.
1 Disable the escape-character (\). This is normally turned
on during verbose output.
2 Add an empty line before the verbose text.
4 Add an empty line after the verbose text.
8 Print the verbose text with numbered lines. This adds four
digitsized spaces in the beginning of each line. Finer
control is available with the string-variable Verbnm. It
contains all arguments to the troff-command .nm, normally
16 Indent the verbose text with five 'n':s. This is con-
trolled by the number-variable Verbin (in units).
End verbatim output.
VL text-indent [mark-indent ]
Variable-item list has no fixed mark, it assumes that every LI
have a mark instead. Text-indent sets the indent to the text,
and mark-indent the distance from the current indent to the
mark. A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line
before each item.
VM [-T] [top [bottom]]
Vertical margin. Adds extra vertical top and margin space.
Option -T set the total space instead. No argument resets the
margin to zero or the default (7v 5v) if -T was used. It is
higly recommended that macro TP and/or EOP are defined if using
-T and setting top and/or bottom margin to less than the
WA [writer-name [title]]
Begins specification of the writer and writer's address. Sev-
eral names can be specified with empty WA/WE-pairs, but only one
WE Ends the address-specification after .WA.
Footnote and display width control.
N Set default mode, -WF, -FF, -WD and FB.
WF Wide footnotes, wide also in two-column mode.
-WF Normal footnote width, follow column mode.
FF All footnotes gets the same width as the first footnote
-FF Normal footnotes, width follows WF and -WF.
Wide displays, wide also in two-column mode.
-WD Normal display width, follow column mode.
FB Floating displays generates a line break when printed on
the current page.
-FB Floating displays does not generate line break.
Strings used in mm:
App A string containing the word "APPENDIX".
The current appendix text.
EM Em dash string
H1txt Will be updated by .H and .HU to the current heading text. Also
updated in table of contents & friends.
HF Fontlist for headings, normally "2 2 2 2 2 2 2". Nonnumeric
fontnames may also be used.
HP Pointsize list for headings. Normally "0 0 0 0 0 0 0" which is
the same as "10 10 10 10 10 10 10".
Contains the index command, sort -t\t.
Lifg String containing Figure.
Litb String containing TABLE.
Liex String containing Exhibit.
Liec String containing Equation.
Licon String containing CONTENTS.
Lf Contains "LIST OF FIGURES".
Lt Contains "LIST OF TABLES".
Lx Contains "LIST OF EXHIBITS".
Le Contains "LIST OF EQUATIONS".
Letfc Contains "Yours very truly,", used in .FC.
Letapp Contains "APPROVED:", used in .AV.
Contains "Date", used in .AV.
LetCN Contains "CONFIDENTIAL", used in .LO CN.
LetSA Contains "To Whom It May Concern:", used in .LO SA.
LetAT Contains "ATTENTION:", used in .LO AT.
LetSJ Contains "SUBJECT:", used in .LO SJ.
LetRN Contains "In reference to:", used in .LO RN.
Letns is an array containing the different strings used in .NS. It is
really a number of stringvariables prefixed with Letns!. If the
argument doesn't exist, it will be included between () with
Letns!copy as prefix and Letns!to as suffix. Observe the space
after copy and before to.
Letns!0 Copy to
Letns!1 Copy (with att.) to
Letns!2 Copy (without att.) to
Letns!7 Under separate cover
Letns!8 Letter to
Letns!9 Memorandum to
Letns!10 Copy (with atts.) to
Letns!11 Copy (without atts.) to
Letns!12 Abstract Only to
Letns!13 Complete Memorandum to
Letns!copy Copy "
Letns!to " to
Defines the standard-notation used when no argument is given to
.NS. Default is 0.
MO1 - MO12
Strings containing January thru December.
Qrf String containing "See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\n[Qrfp].".
Rp Contains "REFERENCES".
Tcst Contains current status of table of contents and list of XXXX.
Empty outside .TC. Useful in user-defined macros like .TP.
co Table of contents
fg List of figures
tb List of tables
ec List of equations
ex List of exhibits
Tm Contains \(tm, trade mark.
Verbnm Argument to .nm in .VERBON, default: 1.
Number variables used in mm:
Aph Print an appendix-page for every new appendix if this number-
variable is non-zero. No output will occur if Aph is zero, but
there will always be an appendix-entry in the 'List of con-
Cl Contents level [0:7], contents saved if heading level <= Cl,
Cp Eject page between LIST OF XXXX if Cp == 0, default 0.
D Debugflag, values >0 produces varying degree of debug. A value
of 1 gives information about the progress of formatting,
De Eject after floating display is output [0:1], default 0.
Dsp Controls the space output before and after static displays if
defined. Otherwise is the value of Lsp used.
Df Floating keep output [0:5], default 5.
Ds Lsp space before and after display if == 1 [0:1], default 1.
Ej Eject page, default 0.
Eq Equation lable adjust 0=left, 1=right. Default 0.
Fs Footnote spacing, default 1.
H1-H7 Heading counters
H1dot Append a dot after the level one heading number if > 0. Default
Copy of number register H1, but it is incremented
just before the page break. Useful in user defined header
macros. Hb Heading break level [0:7], default 2.
Hc Heading centering level, [0:7]. Default 0.
Hi Heading temporary indent [0:2], default 1.
0 -> 0 indent, left margin
1 -> indent to right , like .P 1
2 -> indent to line up with text part of preceding heading
Hps Numbervariable with the heading pre-space level. If the head-
ing-level is less than or equal to Hps, then two lines will pre-
cede the section heading instead of one. Default is first level
only. The real amount of lines is controlled by the variables
Hps1 and Hps2.
Hps1 This is the number of lines preceding .H when the heading-level
is greater than Hps. Value is in units, normally 0.5.
Hps2 This is the number of lines preceding .H when the heading-level
is less than or equal to Hps. Value is in units, normally 1.
Hs Heading space level [0:7], default 2.
Hss This is the number of lines that follows .H when the heading-
level is less than or equal to Hs. Value is in units, nor-
Ht Heading numbering type, default 0. 0 -> multiple (1.1.1 ...)
1 -> single
Hu Unnumbered heading level, default 2.
Hy Hyphenation in body, default 1.
0 -> no hyphenation
1 -> hyphenation 14 on
Iso Set this variable to 1 on the command line to get ISO-formatted
date string. (-rIso=1) Useless inside a document.
L Page length, only for command line settings.
Letwam Max lines in return-address, used in .WA/.WE. Default 14.
Lf, Lt, Lx, Le
Enables (1) or disables (0) the printing of List of figures,
List of tables, List of exhibits and List of equations.
Default: Lf=1, Lt=1, Lx=1, Le=0.
Li List indent, used by .AL, default 6.
Limsp Flag for space between prefix and mark in automatic lists (.AL).
0 == no space
1 == space
Ls List space, if current listlevel > Ls then no spacing will occur
around lists. Default 99.
Lsp The size of an empty line. Normally 0.5v, but it is 1v if n is
N Numbering style [0:5], default 0.
0 == (default) normal header for all pages.
1 == header replaces footer on first page, header is empty.
2 == page header is removed on the first page.
3 == "section-page" numbering enabled.
4 == page header is removed on the first page.
5 == "section-page" and "section-figure" numbering enabled. See
also the number-register Sectf and Sectp.
Np Numbered paragraphs, default 0.
0 == not numbered
1 == numbered in first level headings.
O Page offset, only for command line settings.
Of Format of figure,table,exhibit,equation titles, default 0.
0 = ". "
1 = " - "
P Current page-number, normally the same as % unless "section-
page" numbering is enabled.
Pi paragraph indent, default 5.
Pgps Controls whether header and footer pointsize should follow the
current setting or just change when the header and footer is
0 Pointsize will only change to the current setting when .PH,
.PF, .OH, .EH, .OF or .OE is executed.
1 Pointsize will change after every .S. This is the default.
Ps paragraph spacing, default 1.
Pt Paragraph type, default 0.
0 == left-justified
1 == indented .P
2 == indented .P except after .H, .DE or .LE.
Sectf Flag controlling "section-figures". A non-zero value enables
this. See also register N.
Sectp Flag controlling "section-page-numbers". A non-zero value
enables this. See also register N.
Si Display indent, default 5.
Verbin Indent for .VERBON, default 5n.
W Line length, only for command line settings.
.mgm Always 1.
The letter macros is using different submacros depending on the letter
type. The name of the submacro has the letter type as suffix. It is
therefore possible to define other letter types, either in the national
macro-file, or as local additions. .LT will set the number variables
Pt and Pi to 0 and 5. The following strings and macros must be defined
for a new letter type:
This macro is called directly by .LT. It is supposed to ini-
tialize variables and other stuff.
This macro prints the letter head, and is called instead of the
normal page header. It is supposed to remove the alias
let@header, otherwise it will be called for all pages.
let@sg_type name title n flag [arg1 [arg2 [...]]]
.SG is calling this macro only for letters, memorandums has its
own processing. name and title is specified thru .WA/.WB. n is
the counter, 1-max, and flag is true for the last name. Any
other argument to .SG is appended.
This macro is called by .FC, and has the formal closing as argu-
.LO is implemented as a general option-macro. .LO demands that a
string named Lettype is defined, where type is the letter type. .LO
will then assign the argument to the string variable let*lo-type.
Jorgen Hagg, Lund, Sweden <email@example.com>.
groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1)
Groff Version 18.104.22.168 06 October 2011 GROFF_MM(7)
© 1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <firstname.lastname@example.org>