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DU(1)				 User Commands				 DU(1)


du - estimate file space usage


du [OPTION]... [FILE]... du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F


Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. -a, --all write counts for all files, not just directories --apparent-size print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in ('sparse') files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like -B, --block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks -b, --bytes equivalent to '--apparent-size --block-size=1' -c, --total produce a grand total -D, --dereference-args dereference FILEs that are symbolic links --files0-from=F summarize disk usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F -H like --si, but also evokes a warning; will soon change to be equivalent to --dereference-args (-D) -h, --human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G) --si like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024 -k like --block-size=1K -l, --count-links count sizes many times if hard linked -m like --block-size=1M -L, --dereference dereference all symbolic links -P, --no-dereference don't follow any symbolic links (this is the default) -0, --null end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline -S, --separate-dirs do not include size of subdirectories -s, --summarize display only a total for each argument -x, --one-file-system skip directories on different file systems -X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE Exclude files that match any pattern in FILE. --exclude=PATTERN Exclude files that match PATTERN. --max-depth=N print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize --time show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories --time=WORD show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status --time-style=STYLE show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, +FORMAT FORMAT is interpreted like 'date' --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol- lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.


PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ? matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command du --exclude='*.o' will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.


Report bugs to <>.


Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


The full documentation for du is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and du programs are properly installed at your site, the com- mand info du should give you access to the complete manual. du 5.97 March 2012 DU(1)

1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <>